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Beam Commissioning Data Acquisition for the Iris Variable Aperture Collimator of CyberKnife VSI

Hu Hongbo, Deng Chaohui, Piao Junjie, Shao Gaofeng.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 10-17.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170612111258

Objective: To minimize the risk inherent to the use of medical radiation and robotic radiosurgery, this research introduced the basis and method of beam commissioning data acquisition for the Iris variable aperture collimator of CyberKnife VSI.

Methods: In this study, clinical dosimetry measurements of the Iris collimator such as tissue-phantom ratios (TPRs), off-center ratios (OCRs), and secondary collimator output factors (OFs) were conducted, and the data was contrasted with that of the Fixed collimator.

Results: The Iris data and the Fixed data were not quite different in TPRs in the same radiation field size. Since the difference of the hardware structure,the OCRs and OFs were quite different, especially in small aperture (5, 7.5 and 10 mm) under the same condition of SAD. For example, the maximum discrepancy of the OFs was 26.67% (5mm aperture, 650mm SAD).

Conclusion: When Iris aperture makes some change, tungsten segments move fast and form an aperture smaller than that we need, and then recover to the right size, which may affect the results of the measurement, and also the dodecagonal design of Iris results in a problem of leakage radiation on the edge.

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Biophysical Modeling and Associated Signal Modeling in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Baoji Wang, Yiming Lei.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 2-9.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170724151457

Background: To make such a large-scale digital PET, we are mainly facing the following technical challenges. First of all, the number of nodes in a large-scale digital PET is generally more than hundreds, how to manage them? When the hundreds of nodes are queried or configured or monitored at the same time, there will always be a high concurrency of data transmission, how to ensure the real-time of communication and reliability?

Objective: Managing hundreds of Detector Unit effectivelly and with good scalability.

Methods: We and other investigators have proposed a communication control subsystem based on CAN and Ethernet in all-Digital PET. It mainly contains three modules: Control Center, System Communication & Switch (SCS) Unit and Detector Unit (DU). Control Center connects one or several SCS units via 100Mbps or Gigabit Ethernet. The two modules exchange control information through the TCP/IP protocol. The SCS Unit is connected with dozens of detectors through the CAN bus

Results: With Ethernet and CAN bus in our Digital Pet, the Control Center can connect up to 100 SCS Units with Gigabit Ethernet. Each SCS Unit can communicate with almost 100 DUs with 500kbps CAN bus.

Conclusion: The good scalability and high bandwidth of CAN and Ethernet perfectly solve the problem that the complex communication of hundreds of detector nodes in digital PET system.

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Translational Methods for Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation to Facilitate Gait Rehabilitation Following Stroke - The Future Directions

Anirban Dutta, Walter Paulus, Michael A. Nitsche.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 22-33.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010005
Stroke is one of the leading diseases of the ageing world population where about half of the stroke survivors are left with some degree of physical or cognitive impairment. Impairment of walking is mentioned most frequently as the most important disability. Furthermore, reduced locomotor mobility worsens metabolic fitness, which is one of the leading factors of morbidity in these patients, and imposes an enormous economic burden. Therefore, innovative methodologies for stroke neurorehabilitation are required to reduce long-term disability by physiologically-relevant and evidencebased treatments. With regard to motor rehabilitation, neuroplasticity, which is the ability of the nervous system to respond to intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections is of utmost importance for re-gaining functions. Post-stroke neuroplasticity can be facilitated with non-invasive multi-level electrotherapy such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS), thus improving restitution of locomotor function and alleviating the burden of stroke. In this connection, the translation of insights gained from animal and human basic studies to address the complexity of rational multi-level electrotherapy protocols and to customize such novel electrotherapy protocols, which has only recently become possible with advanced computational tools, is an important challenge. Advanced computational modeling to design and customize innovative electrotherapy protocols to patientspecific needs might help to reach this aim. Here, we provide an overview of the computational methods available to drive individualized multi-level non-invasive electrotherapy programs for gait therapy following stroke based on rationale insights gained from neurophysiological studies.
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A Subsystem of Communication in Digital PET based on Ethernet and CAN

Lifei Yan, Bo Zhang, Rong Chen, Jing Liu.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 18-23.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170711111308

Background: To make such a large-scale digital PET, we are mainly facing the following technical challenges. First of all, the number of nodes in a large-scale digital PET is generally more than hundreds, how to manage them? When the hundreds of nodes are queried or configured or monitored at the same time, there will always be a high concurrency of data transmission, how to ensure the real-time of communication and reliability?

Objective: Managing hundreds of Detector Unit effectivelly and with good scalability

Methods: We and other investigators have proposed a communication control subsystem based on CAN and Ethernet in all-Digital PET. It mainly contains three modules: Control Center, System Communication & Switch (SCS) Unit and Detector Unit (DU). Control Center connects one or several SCS units via 100Mbps or Gigabit Ethernet. The two modules exchange control information through the TCP/IP protocol. The SCS Unit is connected with dozens of detectors through the CAN bus

Results: With Ethernet and CAN bus in our Digital Pet, the Control Center can connect up to 100 SCS Units with Gigabit Ethernet. Each SCS Unit can communicate with almost 100 DUs with 500kbps CAN bus.

Conclusion: The good scalability and high bandwidth of CAN and Ethernet perfectly solve the problem that the complex communication of hundreds of detector nodes in digital PET system.

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SkQ-1 Regulates Xanthine Oxidase Activity in the Settings of Epilepsic Seizures in Rats

Ruben Arshaluys Simonyan, Kristine Edgar Danielyan, Gor Samvel Chailyan, Anahit Samvel Markaryan, Armen Arshaluys Simonyan.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 53-58.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150107004343

Interdependence between mitochondrial dysfunctions and synthesis of the free radicals during the epileptogenesis is proved by number of publications. Xanthine Oxidase (XO) might serve as a source of hydrogen peroxide synthesis, which by its turn is able to disturb the process of ATP generation in mitochondria. Antioxidants, such as Skulachev’s cations, might be used as possible inhibitors of XO and prevent the formation of free radicals in mitochondria. In our current work, we found out that SkQ-1 might inhibit the activity of XO in homogenate as well as in the purified fraction in vitro. In vivo modeling of epilepsy with the utility of korazol showed that the quantity of XO final product – uric acid, is elevating, whereas addition of SkQ-1 might suppress that increase in mitochondria.

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Blocking the Link between Stimulus and Response at Previously Attended Locations: Evidence for Inhibitory Tagging Mechanism

Ming Zhang, Xiaoyu Tang, Jinglong Wu.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 13-21.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010004
Inhibition of return (IOR) refers to a slower response to a target appearing at the previously attended location (also called the cued location) than to a target appearing at an unattended location (uncued location). Inhibitory tagging (IT) involving the attentional executive network is suggested to function by blocking or disconnecting the link between a stimulus representation and the corresponding response mapping at the cued location. Data from behavioral and neuroscience studies are integrated to discuss the IT theory. Behaviorally, the IT effect can be measured by the comparisons of the priming or conflict effects at the cued location versus effects at the uncued location. It has been suggested that IT can reduce or even eliminate the priming effect in semantic priming tasks and the conflict effect in the Stroop (either color-word or spatial Stroop) and the Flanker interference tasks at previously attended locations. Neural correlates of IT are also summarized. Specifically, the posterior parietal lobe, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are suggested to be involved in IT. Reduced event-related potentials (ERPs) components at the cued location provided evidences for IT; these included the N450 component, which is related to conflict resolution processing, and the N400 component, which is related to semantic priming processing, Finally, some comments and prospective remarks on IT are given.
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Electrophysiological Assessment of Visual Function in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Takao Yamasaki, Takako Fujita, Yoko Kamio and Shozo Tobimatsu
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 5-12.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666160115001629
The human visual system is characterized by a set of parallel, hierarchical multistage systems that are specialized to process different types of visual stimuli. There are two major parallel streams: the parvocellular (or ventral) and magnocellular (or dorsal) pathways. The former projects to the inferior temporal cortex for object and color vision, whereas the latter connects to the parietal cortex for motion and spatial vision. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often show inferior global motion perception but superior performance in detailed form (local structure) perception. These unique behaviors suggest the possibility of an impairment of the parallel visual pathways in ASD. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and event-related potentials (ERPs) are non-invasive electrophysiological methods that provide objective information about the function of the visual system. We have recently developed VEPs and ERPs with visual stimuli designed to preferentially stimulate the different levels of each visual pathway. In this review, we introduce the application of VEP and ERP techniques for the assessment of visual perception in ASD. Current data indicate that the atypical visual perception observed in ASD may be caused by the dysfunction of complicated brain networks within the parallel visual pathways, and may contribute to the impaired social communication involved in ASD. Therefore, we conclude that electrophysiological techniques are useful for understanding the pathophysiology of ASD.
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Different Levels of Activity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus Triggered by Lasting and Unlasting Cues in the Posner Task

Jinglong Wu, Yujie Li, Chunlin Li, Yuya Kawata, Tomoko Kurata, Seiichiro Ohno, Susumu Kanazawa, Koji Abe.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 48-53.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010008
In experimental paradigms, voluntary orienting of visual-spatial attention is conventionally achieved through the Posner task in which predictive central cues remain present until target offset (lasting cue) or disappear prior to target onset (unlasting cue). Previous studies have implied that lasting and unlasting cues elicit different levels of activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, no study to date has directly compared the neural correlates of visual-spatial attention under unlasting versus lasting cue conditions. We investigated the neural mechanisms involved in the processing of both types of cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behaviorally, subjects exhibited no difference in the two cue type conditions. However, neuroimaging data revealed increased activation of the left IPS in the unlasting cue condition. We propose that in the unlasting cue condition, the time interval between the onsets of cue and target requires subjects to maintain a location in spatial working memory. This hypothesis suggests that the difference in activity in the left IPS between lasing and unlasting cue conditions is the neural correlate of spatial working memory.
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Effects of Memantine on Event-Related Potentials in Alzheimer’s Disease Under Donepezil Treatment
Masatsugu Takano, Yuka Watanabe, Yuya Hoshino, Naoki Izawa, Toshiyuki Kawakami, Hideaki Tanaka, Koichi Hirata.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 34-39.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010006
Memantine selectively antagonizes N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and prevents neurodegeneration caused by excessive glutamic acid. Memantine inhibits the progress of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD); however, the precise mechanism by which memantine improves cognitive function in AD is unknown. In the present study, we measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the effects of memantine on cognitive function in 21 patients with AD who were being treated with donepezil hydrochloride. Of these 21 patients, 11 (average age, 64.9 ± 11.1 years) showed improvement or no change in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) after memantine administration (MMSE-improved group), and 10 (average age, 65.8 ± 6.7 years) showed worse MMSE scores after memantine administration (MMSE-worsened group). Results from ERPs measurements showed that after memantine administration, the N1 amplitude at Pz increased significantly in the MMSE-improved group, whereas it decreased in the MMSEworsened group. The N1 component of ERPs is an exogenous evoked potential that appears negative in the parietal region predominantly at a latency of approximately 100 ms after an auditory stimulation and is considered to be related to attention processes. Therefore, our findings suggest that memantine may stimulate the parietal lobe, resulting in increased attentiveness and consequently, improved MMSE scores for those with AD.
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Whole Brain Atrophy and Sample Size Estimate via Iterative Principal Component Analysis for Twelve-month Alzheimer's Disease Trials

Napatkamon Ayutyanont, Kewei Chen, Adam S. Fleisher, Jessica B.S. Langbaum, Cole Reschke, Stephanie A. Parks, Wendy Lee, Xiaofen Liu, Hillary Protas, Dan Bandy, Gene E. Alexander, Zhongdan Huan, Li Kong, Kelvin K. Leung, Paul M. Thompson, Norman L. Foster, Danielle J. Harvey, Laurel Beckett, Mony J. de Leon, Robert A. Koeppe, William J. Jagust, Michael W. Weiner, Eric M. Reiman for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 40-47.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010007
In this study, we used Iterative Principal Components Analysis (IPCA) to characterize twelve-month wholebrain atrophy rates in 125 Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients, 288 subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 167 elderly healthy controls (HCs). We compared IPCA to the widely used Brain Boundary Shift Integral (BBSI) and clinical measures of change from the same subjects. Both IPCA and BBSI techniques correlated with changes in Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE). Both IPCA and BBSI–based whole brain atrophy differed among AD, MCI and NC groups and had comparable statistical power. For AD, we estimate the need for 70 patients per group using IPCA and 80 using BBSI to detect a 25% atrophy-slowing effect over twelve months with p=0.05 and 80% power, compared to 514, 636 and 843 using CDR-SB, ADAS-Cog and MMSE. For MCI, we estimate the need for 128 patients per group using IPCA and 136 using BBSI compared to 798, 5392 and 3531 using CDR-SB, ADAS-Cog and MMSE. As an alternative for characterizing whole brain atrophy, the fully automatic IPCA procedure offers sample size precision comparable to that of BBSI.
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Physiological and Histochemical Effects of Continuous Electric or Magnetic Brain Stimulation on Cortical Somatosensory Neurons in Rats

Tetsuo Touge, Daniel Gonzalez, Takanori Miki, Yoshiki Takeuchi.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 54-59.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010009

We evaluated the physiological and morphological changes of cortical neurons by electric or magnetic brain stimulation in rats. Repetitive electric stimulation (rES) to anesthetized rats was delivered with a stimulus frequency(SF) of 1 Hz or 0.2 Hz for 3 hours and 20 minutes via stainless screws put on the somatosensory cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the somatosensory cortex was performed with SF of 0.2 Hz for 2 hours and 20 minutes through a small double-cone coil. During and after the stimulation, somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) elicited by the sciatic nerve were recorded from the somatosensory cortex. For histochemical analysis, rats were sacrificed just after rES or rTMS for 80 minutes. Compared to controls, a cortical component of SEPs (N1), was significantly inhibited by 1 Hz or 0.2 Hz rES (P<0.02). Inhibition of N1 by rES persisted even at one hour after stopping the stimulation. rTMS significantly inhibited N1 at 20 minutes after the onset of stimulation (P<0.05), but the N1 amplitudes gradually increased before stopping the stimulation. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated c-Fos immunoreactive neurons predominantly in the stimulated cortical areas. The continuous stimulation with low frequency rES or rTMS inhibited neural excitability of somatosensory cortex. We assume that c-Fos immunoreactivity is a good histochemical marker immediately reacting to electric or magnetic brain stimulation in rats.

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Limited Persistence of Tactile Working Memory Resources During Delay- Dependent Grating Orientation Discrimination

Yinghua Yu, Jiajia Yang, Jinglong Wu.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 65-72.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010011

Working memory is a system that actively holds information to make it available for further processing. Compared to the working memory associated with vision and audition, the human characteristics of tactile working memory are largely unknown. In this study, we collected behavioral evidence of delay-dependent tactile grating orientation discrimination in humans. Nine healthy subjects participated in the experiment. During each trial, two of seven tactile grating domes of either similar or different orientation were presented to the subject’s right index fingertip. The interstimulus delays used in the experiment were 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 seconds. The subjects were asked to discriminate whether the two orientations were the same. We found that the performance of tactile orientation discrimination improved with larger differences between the presented stimulus orientations. We also found a same/different effect, in which the accuracy and reaction time (RT) resulting from the same-orientation discrimination condition differed from that of the differentorientation discrimination condition. Interestingly, the existence of delay dependence was found under the sameorientation discrimination condition, in which the performance was reduced as the delay time was increased. However, we did not find delay dependence in the different-orientation discrimination condition. These findings of non-identical tactile stimulus discrimination can be understood in the context of tactile memory processing.

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The Efficacy of a Novel Computerized Touch Panel-Type Screening Test to Evaluate the Cognitive Function of Patients with Parkinson's Disease

Kentaro Deguchi, Tomoko Kurata, Shoko Deguchi, Syoichiro Kono, Nobutoshi Morimoto, Yoshio Ikeda, Koji Abe.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 60-64.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010010

Parkinson’s disease (PD) causes cognitive impairment, an important non-motor feature. To examine a novel computerized touch panel-type screening test, we investigated the cognitive functions of age- and gender-matched normal control subjects and 117 PD patients. Cognitive function, which was assessed by a mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and a frontal assessment battery (FAB), showed that the scores of MMSE and FAB of PD Yahr 4 group were lower than those of Yahr 1-3 groups. Touch panel screening tests were easily understood and performed by almost all patients with mild cognitive and motor dysfunction because of the clear-cut imaging and simple methods without detailed manual-handling tasks such as writing. Touch panel screening tests are potentially a novel tool for screening cognitive functions.

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Editorial: Design and Algorithms in Biomedical Engineering

Yiming LEI, Liaoyuan ZENG, Peng XIAO.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 1-1.   DOI: 10.2174/221338520501171013123816
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High Performance and Flexible Configuration Data Acquisition and Processing Unit in All Digital PET System

Chi Xu, Shihao Liu, Bo Zhang.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 24-29.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170711111853

Introduction: This paper presents a software-based data acquisition and processing unit (DAPU) architecture for an all-digital positron emission tomography (PET) system based on 352 LYSO/ SiPM detectors with local digitization. By obtaining raw data directly from individual detector via 10-Gigabit Ethernet in UDP protocol, a self-adapting calibration method for PET is proposed. The architecture is designed to be scalable across an Ethernet network as well as for multi-CPU computer systems. Besides that, more accurate and computationally complex, iterative algorithms could be employed and easily reformed with flexible configuration in DAPU for higher quality and accurate PET image.

Background: By comparison with the traditional PET detector module, which outputs singles or coincidences, the detector module in all digital PET system outputs raw detector data in UDP sockets directly, including digitized timestamps and identifiers of triggered SiPM pixels. To obtain the detector raw data, a high bandwidth data transmission system is required.

Objective: The aim was to present a high performance data acquisition unit to collect and process the digital data of the original flash pulse in order to meet real-time data acquisition and processing of the digital PET system.

Methods: A software based data acquisition and processing unit for digital PET system is presented, which is based on SiPM detector coupled with LYSO crystal arrays. The data acquisition and processing server (DAPS) receives detector raw data and outputs coincidence data by using memory cache and parallel computing.

Results: Due to the use of cache and parallel computing, the result of experiment shows that it is possible to acquire and process the detector raw data simultaneously even the data rate is as high as 1Gbps.

Conclusion: A software based data acquisition and processing unit meets the needs of data acquisition in digital PET system by using memory cache and parallel computing.

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A Study on Building a Monte Carlo Model of G4 CyberKnife Based on the Third-party Softwares

Piao Junjie, Xu Shouping , Hu Hongbo, Li Yongbao, Duan Xuezhang, Qu Baolin.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 30-35.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170612115528

Purpose: To study the beam characteristics of CyberKnife system, especially the features in standardization and calibration of small-field dosimetry under non-standard condition, this research utilized Monte Carlo method to simulate the transporting process of beams in G4 CyberKnife and compared the results with the outcomes of actual measurement so that the accuracy of the established model can be verified.

Materials and Methods: BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc Monte Carlo system was used for simulating the physical structure of G4 CyberKnife model (containing 12 collimators of different sizes). With the adjustment of parameters (the average energy, full width at half maximum of intensity distribution) of electron beam, data of dose distribution for the fields (percentage depth dose, off-axis ratio, output factor, beam quality, correction factor, etc.) in the water phantom could be acquired and compared with the actual measurement so as to determine the parameters of electron beam in the simulated model.

Results: In the comparisons of percentage depth dose, the errors with more than 90% of the points were smaller than 1% (except 5mm and 7.5mm collimators). And for the off-axis ratios, the errors with more than 90% of the points were smaller than 1% (except 5mm, 7.5mm and 10mm collimators). The values of beam output factors in a Monte Carlo system were consistent with the measured values when the collimator sizes were larger than 20mm, and when the collimator size were smaller than 15mm, a certain deviation for output factor existed. The value of beam quality in Monte Carlo model was 0.639, which was close to that of the measured beam quality, 0.635.

Conclusion: The parameters of electron beam were finally determined (the average energy was 6.9MeV and the full width at half maximum of intensity distribution was 0.4 cm). The Monte Carlo model established in this research was able to accurately simulate the beam transporting process of CyberKnife and thus might lay the foundation for the further research.

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When Context Begins Affecting “Ziji” Anaphora Processing? Evidence from Semantic Priming

Shiqian Zhang, Delu Zhang.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 36-43.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170612112605

Background: Principle A of the Government and Binding Theory (Norm Chomsky, 1981, 1986) prescribes that a reflexive should refer to the local (short-distance) antecedent within the local syntactic domain. However, the Chinese bare reflexive “ziji” (自己) does not accord with Principle A. “Ziji” can refer to a local or long-distance antecedent, directly determined by context (co-text).

Objective: The present study aims to explore when context begins affecting “ziji” anaphora processing.

Methods: Using the semantic priming technique, we examined the nature of the earliest stage of context- manipulated “ziji” anaphora processing.

Results: A priming effect on target words under (semantically) relevant contexts was detected; we also found the priming effect on the L-target under the long-distance contextual condition, but found no priming effect on the relevant target (the S-target) under the local (short-distance) contextual condition.

Conclusion: The present study suggests that contextual information begins affecting “ziji” anaphora at its earliest processing stage; that is, context immediately affects “ziji” anaphora processing once it is available. However, at the earliest processing stage, the activation of contextual information is still asymmetric or inadequate.

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Alveolar Bone Mineral Density Measurement using CBCT Images

Jing Zhang, Yongliang Tian, Yicheng Liu, Qi Liu, Junpeng Zhang, Jimmy Liu, Kai Liu.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 44-49.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170612114301

Background: The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), as a non-destructive tool, provides a fast and convenient method for clinicians to diagnose related diseases. Even though some debates still exist among researchers, some studies have demonstrated the feasibility of bone mineral density measurement using CBCT images. Periodontal disease is one of the most common oral diseases. Accurate assessment of periodontal support and alveolar bone condition is very important. However, measuring BMD using CBCT imaging is still controversial.

Objective: In this paper, an experiment was carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of bone mineral density measurement using CBCT images.

Methods: A step-wedge phantom was used to estimate the effective spectrum of X-ray. And the spectrum was to eliminate and correct beam hardening artifact. Calculate BMD from the corrected images.

Conclusion: The result showed that it is possible to measure bone mineral density using CBCT images.

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Scrutinizing different EEG-Based Mechanisms for Motor Control and Rehabilitation of Lower Limb Disabilities

Neha Hooda, Neelesh Kumar.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 50-58.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170126144353

Background: Disability can be defined as a condition that may limit an individual's ability to use a particular limb or part of the body. Disability in the lower limb may be the consequence of a stroke, an accident, infection or can be congenital. This results in increased or total inability to perform everyday tasks. Rehabilitation procedures aim to help patients regain control of their everyday tasks with short-term intervention or life-time assistive support, based upon the kind of limb infarction.

Objective: Present review aims to cite the neuro-rehabilitation methods that support recovery in lower limb function. Articles were screened based upon the inclusion criteria of lower limb motor actions and its genesis being recorded, primarily from the sensorimotor areas of the brain. Studies using electroencephalography (EEG) as the non-invasive method for brain data acquisition only were included.

Results: The detailed analysis of 27 studies was performed after grouping them according to the methodological approach followed. Of all the studies selected, 16 of those corresponded to lower limb motor actions being performed while sitting, whereas only 11 reported the actions during actual bipedal locomotion. Only five interfaced the neuronal signals with electromechanical devices for practical implementation of the rehabilitation procedure.

Conclusion: Qualitative analysis showed that neural rehabilitative procedures does induce plasticity in human brain, but a critical analysis in hospitals or outside environment is necessary to verify the approaches. Future prospects suggest the targeted use of EEG based rehabilitative procedure to uphold the present findings.

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Incremental Rules Induction based on Rule Layers and its Application to Clinical Datasets

Shusaku Tsumoto, Shoji Hirano.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 59-66.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170519122031

Background: Various kinds of rule induction methods have been proposed, such as induction from decision trees, decision lists, and the AQ family.

Several symbolic inductive learning methods have been proposed, such as the induction of decision trees [1, 2, 3], and the AQ family [4, 5, 6]. These methods and many variants initially introduced in the 1980s and 1990s are useful for finding frequent patterns from databases. However, conventional rule mining methods apply to a given dataset when the data has been fixed in the first run, but these methods must run from scratch every time new data appears. Since the computational complexity is n2, a repeated run would limit the applicability of these methods in the era of “Big Data”. To solve this problem, incremental learning methods have been introduced. However, most of the methods have several problems: First, they do not perform worse than conventional rule learning methods. Secondly, those methods do not generate probabilistic rules. Third, computational complexity is heavier than conventional complexity.

Methods: By using a framework of the rough set rule induction model, the authors first investigate the theoretical aspects of updates of statistical indices with additional examples used for rule selection criteria. The authors have found four possibilities for the update of indices, which in turn lead to two new rule selection criteria. If the statistical indices of a rule satisfy the first selection condition, the rule can be used even if an additional example does not support the classification of the rules. If the statistical indices of a rule satisfy the second pair of inequalities, the rule may be removed from the list of classification rules in the above case, or the rule may be included in the list if an additional example supports the classification. These rules belong to subrule layers. Based on rough set theory, we develop a new rule induction method, called PRIMEROSE-INC5 (Probabilistic Rule Induction Method based on Rough Sets for Incremental Learning Methods), which induces probabilistic rules incrementally.

Results: The system was evaluated based on the following two medical datasets, which were previously used for evaluation on conventional rule induction methods. One dataset was on the differential diagnosis of headaches, which consists of 1477 examples with 10 disease classes and 20 attributes. The other dataset was on meningitis, which consists of 198 examples with 3 classes and 25 attributes. The system was compared with other conventional rule induction methods by using repeated 10-fold crossvalidation (repeated times: 100), whose experimental results showed that the proposed system outperformed the previously introduced methods.

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An fMRI-EEG Integrative Method with Model Selection Procedures for Reconstruction of Multiple Cortical Activities

Ryosuke Shiraishi, Tetsuo Kobayashi.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 67-73.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170222112317

Background: Neuroimaging techniques with high spatio-temporal resolution would are crucial for the advancement in brain research, improvement of clinical diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. Functional MRI (fMRI) is characterized by its high spatial resolution. On the other hand, the techniques measuring electromagnetic features of neurons, such as electroencephalography (EEG), provide millisecond order temporal resolution. Therefore, integrative analyses of the fMRI and EEG are expected to provide information with high spatio-temporal resolution enabling to clarify dynamic multiple cortical activities

Objective: We propose a novel fMRI-EEG integrative reconstruction method for multiple cortical activities using EEG data, and we validate the accuracy of our method by comparing it with other popular reconstruction approaches that are assumed to have obtained prior information from fMRI.

Methods: We determined the first model via fMRI data, and we obtained the final model which contained the source that the fMRI could not capture through iterative model selection procedures based on the Akaike information criterion (AIC). We then used a linearly constrained generalized least-squares (LCGLS) filter to suppress unconscious activities. We carried out numerical simulations to validate the proposed method and compared it to two commonly used representative reconstructions method, sLORETA and the LCMV beamformer methods, using the residual sum of the squares.

Results: The proposed method gave a good estimation of the multiple cortical activities by suppressing other fMRI-visible and fMRI-invisible sources.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the proposed method can reconstruct cortical activities more accurately than either sLORETA or the LCMV beamformer methods.

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The Effects of Aging on Haptic Working Memory During Length Discrimination

Zhiwei Wu, Yinghua Yu, Jiajia Yang, Satoshi Takahashi, Yoshimichi Ejima, Jinglong Wu.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 74-80.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170117100827

Background: If human touch an object, even if they are blindfolded, they can reliably perceive its properties, such as temperature, material, length, height, texture and so on. In this study, we focused on investigating length perception, because length perception was an essential factor of object perception.

Objective and Methods: 15 young and 15 old subjects participated in this experiment. They were blindfolded during experiment and actively grasped the displayed length with thumb and index finger and then perceived it. Two working memory-related experiments, varied delay times experiment and n-back experiment were performed separately, in order to investigate whether length discrimination abilities of young and old subjects degraded with aging.

Results and Conclusion: With the increment of delay times, length discrimination threshold of both young and old subjects increased, delay times significantly affected length discrimination. No agerelated differences were found in varied delay times length discrimination experiment. However, we did confirm age-related differences in n-back length discrimination experiment.

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Comparative Neurophysiologic Study of Pain in Patients with Parkinson's Disease and Patients with Persistent Pain After Spinal Surgery

Masanaka Takeda, Hisao Tachibana, Fumiaki Okada, Shuhei Kasama, Hiroo Yoshikawa.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2017, 5 (1): 81-86.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385205666170519120900

Background: Pain is a common and troublesome non-motor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). Similarly, severe postoperative pain is common after major spinal surgery and may become chronic. The pathophysiologic mechanism underlying those conditions remains unclear. In this study, we recorded pain-related evoked potentials induced by intra-epidermal electrical stimulation in patients with PD and patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery and compared the results between the two groups.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the pathophysiology of pain in patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery and in patients with PD.

Methods: We recorded pain-related evoked potentials in 23 patients with PD (64.0 years), 6 patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery (69.5 years) and 12 healthy controls (59.6 years).

Results: Major negative (N1) and positive (P1) deflections were observed after each stimulation. The amplitudes between N1 and P1 (N1-P1), which are thought to originate from the anterior cingulate cortex and insula, were significantly lower in both patients with PD and persistent pain after spinal surgery than in the controls (both P<0.01). However, there was no significant difference in N1-P1 amplitude between the patients with PD and the patients with persistent pain after spinal surgery. No significant differences in N1 and P1 latencies were observed among the three groups.

Conclusion: These results suggest that abnormal central processing of pain is present in patients with PD and those with chronic persistent pain after spinal surgery and that these two conditions share similar pathophysiologic mechanisms, at least partially.

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An analysis of one-shot screening methods of ECG with different types
Sanshiro Ishihara, Katsuhiko Fujiu, Takeshi Imai
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2019, 1 (1): 1-9.  

Background: The automatic classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) data using a convolutional neural network (CNN) model has been practiced earlier, but there are only a few studies on a 12-lead ECG dataset with various class labels. A large amount of ECG data is stored in hospital information systems in Japan, and this data can be used for machine learning. However, each sample in the data is mostly recorded for ten seconds and labelled with the corresponding abnormal classes, not for each lead or waveform, but for the entire 12-lead dataset. Therefore, the one-shot screening method using 2-D images of superimposed PQRST waveforms can be a solution in the given condition that all waveforms in a sample within a certain duration must be processed simultaneously.
Objective: We propose the one-shot screening method with different types of 2-D images of superimposed PQRST waveforms using CNN.
Methods: CNN and ensemble learning were applied to the ECG dataset, which contains over 9,000 samples with two classes, normal and abnormal, consolidated from 130 abnormal class labels for binary classification. We prepared three types of ECG images that were different in the manner in which they superimposed the PQRST waveforms of a single heartbeat: left-aligned, right-aligned, and centered. We compared the results of the three different images and analyzed false negative patterns to ascertain the characteristics of different types of 2D-CNN.
Results: The accuracy of all the frameworks were found to be above 0.867. The framework with the centered ECG images achieved the highest accuracy of 0.938 among the three. The listed abnormal classes with a high false negative ratio differed on the basis of the type of model.
Conclusion: The model with centered images showed the best score with the application of the one-shot method; however, the error analysis demonstrated that the characteristics of these models are varied.

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Mobile Application to Improve Parents’ Knowledge for Maternal and Under-Five Children Health’s in Rwanda
Eraste Rurangwa, Ryosuke Okuda
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2019, 1 (1): 10-16.  
Abstract: Background: The automatic classification of electrocardiogram (ECG) data using a convolutional neural network (CNN) model has been practiced earlier, but there are only a few studies on a 12-lead ECG dataset with various class labels. A large amount of ECG data is stored in hospital information systems in Japan, and this data can be used for machine learning. However, each sample in the data is mostly recorded for ten seconds and labelled with the corresponding abnormal classes, not for each lead or waveform, but for the entire 12-lead dataset. Therefore, the one-shot screening method using 2-D images of superimposed PQRST waveforms can be a solution in the given condition that all waveforms in a sample within a certain duration must be processed simultaneously. Objective: We propose the one-shot screening method with different types of 2-D images of superimposed PQRST waveforms using CNN. Methods: CNN and ensemble learning were applied to the ECG dataset, which contains over 9,000 samples with two classes, normal and abnormal, consolidated from 130 abnormal class labels for binary classification. We prepared three types of ECG images that were different in the manner in which they superimposed the PQRST waveforms of a single heartbeat: left-aligned, right-aligned, and centered. We compared the results of the three different images and analyzed false negative patterns to ascertain the characteristics of different types of 2D-CNN. Results: The accuracy of all the frameworks were found to be above 0.867. The framework with the centered ECG images achieved the highest accuracy of 0.938 among the three. The listed abnormal classes with a high false negative ratio differed on the basis of the type of model. Conclusion: The model with centered images showed the best score with the application of the one-shot method; however, the error analysis demonstrated that the characteristics of these models are varied.
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AI technique to detemine the level of cognitive/intelligent level.

Akinori Abe, Yuki Hayashi and Shusaku Tsumoto
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2019, 1 (1): 17-27.  

Recently according to the long life of us, it has been pointed out that one of the serious problem is dementia. Accordingly it is necessary to support such person to understand things to spend daily lives with understanding their cognitive level. For that we are planning to develop a cognitive level estimation system. For that we have collected several size of data during experiments of the online shopping game. Where we could collect various information about the participants' behaviour. For instance, how they moved in the supermarket and which things (products) they checked, returned or bought. In addition we could collect their voice data. We have an intention to use those data to determine how human beings think during shopping. In addition, we think we can estimate the intelligent level (cognitive function) from the data. In order to do so, it will be necessary to deal with the collected data correctly. In this paper, we will discuss how to collect data, what data should be collected, and how to store data in the data base. We will also show the feature of collated data and the construction of corpus from the data. The corpus can be transferred to the knowledge base to perform the system for both online shopping and cognitive function/level estimation. Then we will discuss how to estimate the cognitive function. In addition, we will discuss the AI techniques such as abduction to realise the system with cognitive level estimation and dementia person support.

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Neural Network Modeling and Analysis of Turn Duration Time Changing of Silkmoth Using Genetic Algorithm

Ryosuke Chiba, Sunao Hashimoto, Tomoki Kazawa, Ryohei Kanzaki, Jun Ota.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 59-67.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150122002353

In this study, we investigate the reproductive behavior of the male silkmoth, Bombyx mori. When a male silkmoth senses the sexual pheromones of a female through its antennas, it shows a certain walking pattern by which it approaches the female. Interestingly, the degree of pheromone stimulation influences the turn duration time in this pattern. This walking pattern is considered to be generated in the silkmoth brain, specifically in the lateral accessory lobe (LAL) and the ventral protocerebrum (VPC) domain, which control physical movements However, the system responsible for this behavior remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the generation of this behavior through a neural network model of the LAL and VPC domains. Specifically, we model many neurons in the silkmoth brain using one artificial neuron and estimate the strength of each connection using a genetic algorithm between 10 neurons that represent neuron groups with a fitness function of turn duration time. The model of the silkmoth brain is verified and evaluated from both engineering and biological viewpoints. The modeling results show that only 6 LAL- VPC regions can make the turn duration time shortening and buffering regions play very important roles in the reproductive behavior. Subsequently, we developed a new hypothesis that a male silkmoth adjusts its walking pattern using the time delay of transition the signals between lateral and bi-lateral regions.

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Book Review: The New Handbook of Multisensory Processing. Barry E. Stein, ed. June 2012. The MIT Press. No. of pages 823. ISBN: 987-0-262-01712-1

Yan-Na Ren, Weiping Yang, Jinglong Wu.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 105-108.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203999150305104442
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Group-Analysis of Resting-State fMRI Based on Bayesian Network: A Comparison of Three Virtual-Typical-Subject Methods

Wu Tong, Wu Xia, Wen Xuyun, Yao Li.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 92-98.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150328002017

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technology can be implemented to infer brain activities consistently shared by a population or to identify their differences between populations. There are numerous studies that investigated the anatomical and functional connectivity of the network based on group-analysis. Here, the virtual-typical-subject (VTS) group-analysis methods of restingstate fMRI based on Bayesian network (BN) were investigated. There are three types of VTS-based methods: principal component analysis method (PCA-based), average method (AVE-based) and concatenate method (CAT-based). Sets of simulated data were constructed to test the robustness and performance of these VTS methods. The results from simulation demonstrated that the performance and robustness of AVE-based and CAT-based method was superior to that of the PCA-based method. Compared with CAT-based method, AVE-based method has higher stability, while the CAT-based method showed a better performance for different coefficient matrix of simulated data. Finally, the BN group-analysis (AVE-based and CAT-based) methods were applied to infer effective brain connectivity from real fMRI data. The results were consistent to previous study and demonstrated the validity of group-analysis method.

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Safflor Protected Rat Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting the Expression of NF-kB and IL-1β

Jing Li, Guan-Yu Cao, Yong Luo, Fei Feng, Wen-Ming Chen, Xiao-Yang Yang.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 87-91.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150227232427

Objective: To observe the neutoprotective effect of the safflor on cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rat. Methods: Sixty-six rats were divided into six groups: the sham operation group, model group and four treat groups, with 11 rats in each group. Preconditioning with safflor (0.8, 1.6, 3.2 ml/kgd) and Nimodipine (2 ml/kgd) in treat groups respectively, and equal volume of saline in sham operation group and model group by peritoneal injection for 15 days before operation. To establish the focal cerebral ischemia model through right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in ratsneurological function defected score and measurement of infarct volume was evaluated 24 hours later, and the level of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in peripheral zone of ischemia was detected by immunohistochemisty. Results: The neurological function defect score in treatment groups is lower, and the volume of infarcted tissue is reduced significantly as compared to the model group (P <0.05). The level of NF-κB and IL-1β protein in treatment groups is also significantly decreased contrast with the model group (P <0.05). Conclusion: Safflor possesses obvious neuroprotective effect on the cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury in rats, which may work in suppressing the activity of NF-κB and the expression of IL-1β protein.

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Assessment of Functional and Biological Compatibility of Antenna in a Head-Mountable DBS Device Using a Rat Model
Md Kamal Hosain, Abbas Z. Kouzani.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (1): 73-82.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385211301010012

This paper presents a compact planar dipole antenna and an investigation of the interaction of the antenna used in a head-mountable passive deep brain stimulation device and a rat model in two aspects: functional and biological. The functional aspect examines the influence of the rat model on the antenna parameters including refection coefficient, efficiency, and radiation pattern whereas the biological aspect examines the impact of the antenna on the rat model in terms of specific absorption rate, and electromagnetic field distribution. The investigation is carried out with the aid of rat models and a planar dipole antenna which receives the RF energy at 915 MHz for supplying power to a passive DBS device. Both the analytical and simulation results are presented and discussed. The simulation results are obtained by using the electromagnetic simulation software XFdtd. The simulated results show that the complete rat model has more influence on the antenna performance than the rat head model. The electromagnetic power absorption in biological tissues of the rat model depends on the gap distance between the antenna and the position of tissue, and the dielectric properties of the tissues. The maximum electric field value is obtained in the skull of the rat head model, and in the slice of the skull in the complete rat model. The highest 1 g average SAR value for the rat head model is 60 W/kg whereas that for the complete rat model is 101.45 W/kg for the received power of 1W at the antenna terminal.

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Providing Sensory Feedback Using Electrical Stimulation for Neural Prosthesis

Qiuxia Lai, Dingyin Hu, Ang Ke, Jiping He.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 99-104.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150328002141

Providing a neural prosthesis with sensory feedback is essential for refined manipulation. The prosthesis based on a Schunk Dexterous Hand for grasping is supplemented by electrical stimulation to generate time-variant stimulation patterns to offer sensory feedback to amputees. The contact force measured by tactile array sensors on the prosthesis is converted into corresponding patterns used for electrical stimulation of peripheral sensory nerves. The sensory feedback experiment and the stimulation pattern generation experiment were conducted individually, verifying that sensory information can be reliably measured and time-variant stimulation can be realized. Based on these preliminary experiments and simulation results from the novel prosthesis system, we will conduct integrated in vitro experiments to develop neutrally controlled intelligent prostheses.

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New Highlights in the Regulation of Cells Proliferation

Hovsep Alexandr Aganyants, Razmik Ashot Abrahamyan, Samvel Grigoriy Chailyan, Kristine Edgar Danielyan.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 81-86.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150213190534

Background: Rate-limiting enzymes of purine and pyrimidine catabolisms might possess with the abilities of key regulators of cells proliferation. In our previous work we have shown that allopurinol, classical inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase (XO; EC., is capable of regulating purine catabolism in the liver tissue. Our current results prove that evidence for the brain tissue after utility of other biomolecules – pyridoxine, epinephrine. Methods: Cultivation of (E90) human brain cells was performed by the modified method of Mattson (1990). Specific activity of XO was delineated by the utility of the method measuring formation of the uric acid. Quantification of the cells stained by the Trypan Blue allowed determination of the healthy cells yield. Purification of the XO was performed based on the routine biochemical procedures with further utility of preparative electrophoresis and RP-HPLC. Results and conclusion: The newly developed methods for purification of XO served as a basis for delineation of Ki (0.0076 mM), Vmax (0.0279) values for the pyridoxine as an inhibitor of XO. We studied interaction of XO and pyridoxine in pyridoxine depleted, theophylline treated rats. Also, we estimated the tight interaction between the synthesis of epinephrine and XO activity, which greatly influences the processes of cells proliferation and death during in vitro studies.

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Post-stroke Engagement-sensitive Balance Rehabilitation Under An Adaptive Multi-level Electrotherapy: Clinical Hypothesis and Computational Framework

Anirban Dutta, Deepesh Kumar, Uttama Lahiri, Abhijit Das, Madakasira Vasantha Padma.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (2): 68-80.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150213231656

Stroke is caused due to burst or clot in an artery carrying blood from heart to an area in the brain. This prevents delivery of oxygen and nutrients to neurons thereby causing their death and leading to disability. Since about half of the stroke survivors are left with some degree of disability so innovative methodologies for restorative neurorehabilitation are urgently required to reduce long-term disability. Here, the ability of the nervous system to respond to stimuli by reorganizing its structure, function and connections may play an important role which is called neuroplasticity. Beneficial neuroplastic changes can be facilitated early in post-stroke rehabilitation using sensory and motor stimulation towards sensorimotor integration where electrical stimulation of the neural tissue may play an important role. Furthermore, active cortical participation may be required for such sensorimotor integration where volitional effort, detected with electromyogram- (EMG) and electroencephalogram- (EEG) derived biopotentials, may be assisted with non-invasive electrotherapy, such as neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS). In this article, we discuss this novel concept for an engagement-sensitive interactive system consisting of a low-cost static posturography system with adaptive response non-invasive electrotherapy technology for post-stroke balance rehabilitation that integrates a multi-level (central and peripheral nervous system) electrotherapy paradigm to assist volitional postural control.

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An EOG-based Vigilance Estimation Method Applied for Driver Fatigue Detection

Jia-Xin Ma, Li-Chen Shi, Bao-Liang Lu.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2014, 2 (1): 41-51.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385202666141218104855

To deal with the problem of detecting driver fatigue, we propose a vigilance estimation method using electrooculogram (EOG) and investigate the correlation between multiple EOG features and vigilance. We examine four kinds of features extracted from EOG: slow eye movement (SEM), saccade, blink, and EOG energy. First, we introduce three eye movement detection algorithms to identify SEMs, saccades, and blinks from EOGs. Then we define and extract twenty different features from those eye movements. Second, the features are processed by a linear dynamic system (LDS) approach, which can effectively remove noises and some EOG components that are irrelevant to vigilance. Finally, we analyze the de-noised features with the vigilance reference obtained from a monotonous visual task. Our experimental results on an EOG data set of twentytwo subjects indicate that combination of SEMs, saccades, blinks, and energy features of EOGs has a high correlation coefficient with the vigilance references, up to the average 0.75. This work provides a potent support to developing vigilance estimation system based on multiple EOG features for detecting driver fatigue.

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Assessment of Motor Function in Complex Regional Pain Syndrome With Virtual Reality-based Mirror Visual Feedback: A Pilot Case Study

Satoshi Fukumori, Kantaro Miyake, Akio Gofuku, Kenji Sato.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (1): 43-49.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666151102214311

Background: Patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) require long-term treatment. Virtual reality based mirror visual feedback (VR-MVF) can contribute to this treatment. A personal VR-MVF system has been proposed for treating patients at home. Assessment and understanding of a patient's condition is required for medical instruction in order to continue home-based treatment. However, diagnostic questionnaires alone are inadequate for complete assessment of a patient’s condition. The purpose of this study was to find movement indices for the improvement of CRPS by comparing hand movements of patients with CRPS to those of normal people.

Method: We compared reaching movements of the wrist and elbow during the VR-MVF treatment task. A personal VRMVF system was used for collecting data. Reaching movements were defined as movements from 2 seconds before the grasp of the virtual object to the time at which the object was grasped.

Result: The results showed that healthy participants performed reaching movements with their hand. On the other hand, the patients with CRPS tended to perform reaching movements by moving their elbow instead of their hand. In addition, the results showed that the increase in trajectory length of the patients’ hand relative to their elbow may relate to pain reduction.

Conclusion: In accordance with these results, we suggest that focusing on the movements of the hand and the elbow may be useful for understanding the condition of these patients, and that hand and elbow movements may be used as indices.

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New Insights in Testing and Imaging Techniques for Solid Tumor Response Evaluation

Xiangyun Yao, Hongwei Yao.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (4): 241-248.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666160628075458

Background: Evaluation of tumor burden plays central roles in cancer care. There remain several aspects of limitations of the conventional Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). More precise techniques with sufficient standardization and availability are needed for characterizing tumor biological features.

Results: This review summarized current techniques of blood testing and imaging techniques on tumor response evaluation. Benefit and limitations of each method were characterized and current trends in application were provided.Conclusion: Peripheral circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) testing techniques overcome the limitations of repeated sampling and bias of histopathological examination, and provide insights of obtaining the whole genome information by blood sampling. Current structural and functional imaging techniques proposed the prognostic value of density, volume, surface area and functional indexes for tumor response evaluation. Further research on distinguishing tumor biological features from the interference of microenvironment and combined multi-parameters analyses based on larger scale data are needed.

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Wavelet Transform Based Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Patient- Specific Single Spike-and-Wave Discharges in Simulated Real-Time Conditions

Filipp Polivannyi, Tomohiko Igasaki, Nobuki Murayama, Ryuji Neshige.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (4): 263-272.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666160923123909

Background: Transcranial magnetic stimulation applied at the appearance of spike-and-wave discharges in patients’ electroencephalograms may inhibit seizures. The prospect of transcranial magnetic stimulation holds much promise as a noninvasive treatment method for epileptic seizures, and the development of a system for the automatic detection of spike-and-wave discharges would facilitate implementation of this treatment method. However, the variety of waveforms and the appearance in the electroencephalography signal of waveforms similar to spike-and-wave discharges, called pseudo-spikeand- wave discharges, makes successful detection difficult to achieve.

Objective: The aim of the current research was to develop an algorithm for the online detection of spikeand- wave discharges in epileptic patients’ electroencephalograms.Methods: In this study, a wavelet transform was used as the backbone for the algorithm. A clinician extracted data from a thirty-minute four-lead electroencephalography data recording, comprising fifty-four spike-and-wave discharge samples and fifteen pseudo-spike-and-wave discharge samples.Results: The simulated online detection method distinguished spike-and-wave discharges from pseudospike- and-wave discharges. However, a few cases of over-detection occurred, which has implications for the specificity and safety of the developed algorithm.Conclusion: The performance of a newly developed algorithm was reported. A visual analysis of the spike-and-wave discharges and pseudo-waveforms, as well as a time-frequency domain analysis, revealed features that make optimal detection of spike-and-wave discharge waveforms from other oscillations in electroencephalography recordings possible at a threshold level.

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Exploring Self-Regulation Based Virtual Learning Environments Using Diary

Mahmoud M.H. Ahmed, Chaklam Silpasuwanchai, Naglaa M. Fares, Zeinab M. Amin, Abd El-Rahem A.A. Salama.
Journal of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2015, 3 (2): 66-75.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385203666150828233907
Background: Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs) such as Coursera, Moodle and edX have become increasingly popular. However, achieving self-regulated learning (SRL) remains an ongoing challenge in current VLEs. Diaries are instruments through which students can reflect on their learning experiences and the use of a diary is important for gathering various kinds of information. Also, diaries help to obtain valid data on daily learning experiences and progress. This paper explores the use of a diary to enhance student self-regulation while learning in a VLE. Methods: The experimental period lasted 4 weeks. Participants studied 10 lessons in a VLE with one e-quiz after each lesson. They also interacted with teachers and other students on the Facebook pages. A YouTube channel was used to help students upload their project progress reports (e.g., videos). Only the experimental group participants were using Google forms to write diaries. Every student in both groups answered the questionnaire (pre–test) to identify the (SRL) level of each student and every student answered a post–test questionnaire so we could measure and compare results and relative progress. Results: In almost all cases, participants from the experimental and the control groups improved their Self-Regulated Learning abilities in the VLE, however, there was more improvement in the experimental group than in the control group in almost all aspects of SRL. The study indicates that the use of a diary increases the number of correct answers in SRL questionnaires and develops self-regulation behaviour among students above and beyond the level attained when studying in a VLE without writing diary. After analysing 200 diary files from the experimental group students we found that their performances had improved significantly above and beyond the control group results which confirms that writing a diary while studying in a VLE has positive effects on student SRL. Conclusion: Writing diaries had a significantly positive effect on improving the students’ self-regulation compared with studying in a VLE without writing a diary. There are multiple benefits. Some of these are the sense of personal ownership of design objectives and thus greater motivation to be engaged, personal adjustments made to the study environment, personal planning, the establishment of personal priorities and self-reliance. Diary use also develops the students’ capacity for self-accounting. We expect that the use of diaries in virtual learning environments will open up an entirely new range of research issues for educational purposes and for human development.
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The Molecular Basis of Neural Memory. Part 4. “Binary” Computation vs “Multinary” Mentation

Gerard Marx, Chaim Gilon
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (1): 14-24.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666151119213337

Background: What is neural memory? How does it differ from binary encoded, computer memory? Attempts to model brain function using contemporary computer hardware and (information) theory suggests the need for a new paradigm. The disparity between (dry) electronic devices that “compute” in binary format (n=2) and biologic (wet) neural nets that mentate in “multinary” format (i.e. n>10), reflects drastically differing recall systems. Focusing on codes, we discuss Morse and Braille codes and note that a binary bit (0 /1) cannot encode a psychic (emotive) state. Between 0 and 1, there is no code for “emotions”.

Hypothesis: “Form follows function”. There are no “naked neurons”. Neuron morphology (extended shape, large surface area) implies intimate contact with its surroundings. Based on observed morphological and biochemical evidence, we propose a tripartite, biochemical process for encoding neural memory, whereby the surrounding “neural extracellular matrix” (nECM), functions as a “memory material” to encode and store cognitive units of information (cuinfo). The dopants (>10 neuro-metals, >90 neuro-transmitters (NTs)) within vesicles ejected by neurons into the nECM, provide the neuron with Avogadro scale (A=6x10 23 ) “dopants” for encoding emotive memory. Calculations using experimentally determined (molar) levels of metals and NTs, reveal astronomical coding options and capacity.

Conclusion: Neurons collectively generate memory, using both electrodynamic and chemodynamic signals. The NTs link physiology to psyche, functioning in memory as signifiers (enciphers) of emotions. An algorithm, blueprint, calculus, fractal, mimetic or simulation that ignores {neuron-nECM-NT} interactions, cannot emulate mental processes of the brain, recalling emotive memory to survive.

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Quantitative Estimation of Software Quality in Hospital Information System

Shusaku Tsumoto, Shoji Hirano, Yuko Tsumoto.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (1): 57-66.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666160202004525

Background: Clinical information have been stored electronically as a hospital information system(HIS). The database stores all the data related with medical actions, including accounting information, laboratory examinations, and patient records described by medical staff and becomes the indispensable infrastructure for clinical decision process. However, clinical environment is very complex, and flexible and adaptive service improvement is crucial in maintaining quality of medical care. Thus, incremental software development in hospital information system and its evaluation is important.

Methods: The following software development process is proposed. First, data extracted from hospital information system is used to capture the peculiarities of the divisions in a university hospital. Then, the mining results are interpreted by medical staff and the solutions are discussed. Based on the discussions, new interfaces are developed, and their performance was evaluated using the service logs. The data used for hypothesis generation is the chronological change of the number of clinical orders and waiting time. Analytical method of temporal data is based on multiscale matching method. Experiments were conducted from fiscal year 2010 to 2012. In the ends of fiscal year 2010 and 2011, the new software was embedded into hospital information system and service logs are collected. From the service log, the times when a patient came to visit a reception and a laboratory division, when results of laboratory examinations were output, when a doctor started to examine in his/her clinic were extracted, the time differences between events were calculated and these values were used for the evaluation statistics. Fiscal year 2010, 2011 and 2012 were regarded as the baseline, the period when the first improvement was implemented, and that when the second improvement implemented, respectively. Comparison of statistics (median and mean) were used for evaluation and Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for checking the differences among three years. For statistical analysis, R3-1-1 was used.

Results: Two divisions, hepatology and rheumatology were selected for comparison. The obtained results gave a hypothesis that the workflow of rheumatology is different from that of hepatology, which reflected the ordinary workflow in the outpatient clinics of the university hospital and caused the problem where experts forgot to issue the orders. The first step was to implement an interface for double checking: if a clinician input the comment on laboratory examination in a reservation sheet but he/she has not yet issued an order before they closed their windows for a patient, an alert will come up from the screen. After one year trial, statistics showed a small improvement in waiting time was very small as shown in the next section, we discussed with rheumatologists again, and in fiscal year 2012, we set up the management screen where all the forgotten orders for patients who visited that day would be displayed, and the doctors could go back to issue orders. The workflow and waiting time were improved after the second installation.

Conclusion: The process, which can be viewed as a variant of active mining process, will give a new framework for quantitative evaluation of software development in hospital information system, which can be viewed as an application of active mining process.

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A Review of Rehabilitation Devices to Promote Upper Limb Function Following Stroke

Jacob Brackenridge, Lynley V. Bradnam, Sheila Lennon, John J. Costi, David A. Hobbs
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (1): 25-42.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666160303220102

Background: Stroke is a major contributor to the reduced ability to carry out activities of daily living (ADL) post cerebral infarct. There has been a major focus on understanding and improving rehabilitation interventions in order to target cortical neural plasticity to support recovery of upper limb function. Conventional therapies delivered by therapists have been combined with the application of mechanical and robotic devices to provide controlled and assisted movement of the paretic upper limb. The ability to provide greater levels of intensity and reproducible repetitive task practice through the application of intervention devices are key mechanisms to support rehabilitation efficacy.

Results: This review of literature published in the last decade identified 141 robotic or mechanical devices. These devices have been characterised and assessed by their individual characteristics to provide a review of current trends in rehabilitation device interventions. Correlation of factors identified to promote positive targeted neural plasticity has raised questions over the benefits of expensive robotic devices over simple mechanical ones.

Conclusion: A mechanical device with appropriate functionality to support the promotion of neural plasticity after stroke may provide an effective solution for both patient recovery and to stimulate further research into the use of medical devices in stroke rehabilitation. These findings indicate that a focus on simple, cost effective and efficacious intervention solutions may improve rehabilitation outcomes.

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Blood-based Amyloid and Tau Biomarker Tests For Alzheimer’s Disease

Jijun Chen, Aiqin Wang, Lei Liu
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (1): 4-13.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666160115001629

Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most seen cause of dementia. Biomarker tests will be essential to improve the early diagnosis of AD, as treatment is more effective in the early stage. The biomarkers of AD are divided into two main classes: amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) accumulation, and tau-related neuronal degeneration. Peripheral blood represents an alternative sample for reflecting pathological events occurring in the body. Blood samples are a possible alternative for cerebrovascular fluid samples. The potential advantages of blood biomarkers are obvious: less invasive; simple to perform, convenient to use, and not harmful to the patient.

Methods: Review publications about peripheral blood amyloid and tau biomarker tests by ELISA for AD stages; analyze and interpret data in comparison with cerebrovascular fluid results. Also review publications about peripheral messenger RNA biomarkers tests for AD diagnosis; analyze feasibility of diagnostic tests using blood messenger RNA biomarkers for AD.

Results: With sensitive and specific ELISA, extensive studies of plasma Aβ42 level and Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio were reported during the development of blood-based protein biomarkers. High level of plasma Aβ42 increased risk of AD or cognitive decline. The majority of the studies also indicated that increased plasma Aβ42 level was present prior to or at the start of the development of AD, and Aβ42 level decreased as disease progressed; the lowest Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio reported was associated with developing dementia. However, some studies showed inconsistent results. Reliable methods to determine levels of tau and phosphorylated tau in blood of AD patients are still being explored.

Conclusion: The effort to discover and develop diagnostic protein biomarkers in blood has not led to feasible candidate markers close to CSF. It may be helpful for each laboratory to set its own normal value or cut-offs due to different ELISA kits used. Improving clinical diagnostic criteria may be another valuable option. Development of additional biomarkers may also increase diagnostic accuracy. Compared with other technologies used in routine diagnostic tests, real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is sensitive, specific, scalable, and cost-effective. There is relatively less evidence of blood mRNAs acting as biomarkers in AD. The scientific merit and feasibility of diagnostic tests for monitoring AD progress using blood mRNAs biomarker quantification need to be established.

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Effect of Aging On the Human Kinetic Visual Field

Satoshi Takahashi, Zhihan Xu, Masanori Tanida, Jinglong Wu.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (1): 50-56.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204666151203215946

Background: The area of the kinetic visual field becomes smaller as the brightness of targets becomes darker. Additionally, this ability to recognize an object is decreasing depends on age. However, whether not only the target brightness, but also the background brightness will make the area of the kinetic visual field decrease in ranging of age. We aim of our study in to investigate the differences in the kinetic visual field at several levels of background brightness in young and elder participants.

Methods: The kinetic visual field was measured with three levels of background brightness (0.003 cd/m2, 1.6 cd/m2, 64 cd/m2) in contrast ratio (1.4) within younger and elder participants using the Goldman perimeter, which utilizes an electromotive slider to control the speeds of the target’s movement.

Results: The isopter for elder adults was smaller than for younger adults. Additionally there was a significant difference between the younger and elder participants for each level of background brightness when tested by ANOVA. Furthermore the results suggested that the isopter’s shape of 0.003 cd/m2 was smaller, and for 1.6 cd/m2 and 200 cd/m2, the shape was substantially the same. In addition, on the ear side relative to the nose side, the isopter spread largely to the lower area relative to the upper, and this trend seen in elder adults was substantially the same in younger adults.

Conclusion: The kinetic visual field decreased as background brightness in ranging of age. Although previous studies concluded that the eccentric angle of the upper side of the visual field was reduced, this study found that the visual field on the nose side was also reduced. On the other hand, it was found that the reduction of the eccentric angle was less than in the downward visual field. If the visual field is binocular, the downward visual field will be less influenced by aging.

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Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Imaging of pH

Zhi-wei Shen, Lv-hao Wang, Zhuo-zhi Dai, Gang Xiao, Yin Wu, Ren-hua Wu.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (2): 111-115.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385202666140207001055

pH is an important physiological index that alters in a host of disorders including inflammation, ischemic stroke and cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly and accurately detect pH in vivo for diagnosing tissue damage and monitoring its response to treatment. Although magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can provide non-invasive measurement of pH, its spatiotemporal resolution is somewhat limited, hindering its routine use in clinic. Recently, chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) contrast mechanism has been developed as a novel approach to image pH at reasonable spatiotemporal resolution with promising in vivo applications. In this review, we discuss the principles of CEST phenomenon, quantify CEST effect and summarize its in vivo use.

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Visual Field Maps of the Human Visual Cortex for Central and Peripheral Vision

Bin Wang, Hiroki Yamamoto, Jinglong Wu, Yoshimichi Ejima.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (2): 102-110.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385202666140207002441

In humans, visual information in the peripheral visual field is processed differently from such information in the central visual field. For example, peripheral vision prefers coarser information, while central vision prefers finer details. Recent advances in neuroimaging allowed us to non-invasively explore the neural substrates underlying the distinctiveness of peripheral and central vision. In the human visual cortex, there is a mosaic of orderly representations of the visual field, and this organization is called a visual field map. In this review, we summarize the various strands of research on visual field maps, which are crucial to understand human peripheral vision. We first describe the techniques that are used to measure visual field maps by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We then review several studies that have tried to locate human visual areas using these techniques. We focused particularly on the findings of retinotopic organization for “far” peripheral visual field and tried to find the cortical regions that are crucial for peripheral vision.

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Biomarker Research of Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease and MCI Based on Neuroimage Techniques

Xia Wu, Xiaojuan Guo, Youzhi Lai, Kewei Chen, Li Yao.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (2): 92-101.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385202666140207002924

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an aging-related and progressive neurodegenerative disease related with age. At the time of clinical manifestation of dementia AD, significant irreversible brain damage is already present, rendering the diagnosis of AD at early stages of the disease an urgent prerequisite for therapeutic treatment to halt, or at least slow, the onset or progression of the disease progression. Recent numerous studies using the state-of-art neuroimaging techniques that have identified AD-like structural and functional brain changes in elderly people who are cognitively within the normal range or who have mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal stage of the disease are discussed. In this review, we discussed various neuroimaging measures that are proving to have potential values as biomarkers of preclinical AD pathology for the its early detection and prediction as well as serving as a clinical trial outcome measures with additional validations.

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Quantitative Electroencephalogram Analysis in Parkinson’s Disease

Satoshi Kamei, Akihiko Morita.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (2): 83-91.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385201999140109143729

Recent quantitative EEG (qEEG) analyses in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are reviewed. We reported the first qEEG evaluation in PD not only employing multiple logistic regression analysis but also estimating the distribution of qEEG changes in 2008. We evaluated the spectral ratio, i.e. the total of the absolute power values in the α and β waves divided by the total of the δ and θ waves values. The spectral ratios at all electrode locations excluded the frontal pole were presented to be the significant predictive variables in PD. PD presented diffuse slowing in the qEEG as compared to age-adjusted normal controls. We also evaluated the relation between the progression of PD and qEEG in 2009. The spectral ratio was significantly decreased according to the progression of PD at all the electrode locations. Moreover, we studied qEEG alterations in PD patients with executive dysfunction (ExD) in 2010 and cognitive impairment in 2011. An increase in slow wave was exhibited in frontal and frontal-pole locations in ExD and presented in all locations in dementia. It has been recently reported that qEEG finding has potential as a predictive biomarker for dementia incidence in PD in 2011.The qEEG analysis was thus not only a useful tool to study pathophysiological findings, but also a predictive biomarker for dementia.

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Relative Position of the Fingers Affects Length Perception While Grasping Objects

Satoshi Takahashi, Yanna Ren, Haibo Wang, Naotsugu Kitayama, Zhiwei Wu, Jinglong Wu.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2016, 4 (1): 67-74.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385204999160426162248

Background: Representation of objects can be obtained through tactual perception alone. The previous studies showed that there were no significant differences between the index finger and middle finger when the participants perceived the length of the presented objects, however, the length perception characteristics between the thumb and each of the four other fingers remains unclear. Objective: To investigate the length perception characteristics between the thumb and each of the four other fingers, the current study using a four-degree-of-freedom (4DOF) length display device with an adjustable distance conducted length perception experiments.

Methods: We performed two experiments: experiment I, perception of different lengths (natural position), and experiment II, perception of the same length (same length position). In experiment I, the length presented to each pair of fingers was different. In experiment II, the length presented to finger pairs of the participants was the same.

Results: The results showed that in both experiments, the perceived length was relatively shorter than the presented length, and when the presented length was longer than 70 mm, the error becomes smaller. The comparison of results indicated that for the perception of the index finger, no significant differences existed between the two experiments under any condition; for the middle and ring fingers, significant differences were found only when the presented length was approximately 100 mm; for the little finger, significant differences were found for lengths ranging from 45 mm to 90 mm.

Conclusion: These results indicated that the perceptual accuracy at the natural position of the fingers is worse than that when the finger is in a bent position, and when the finger is spread beyond the neutral position, the relative positon affects the length perception.

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A Method for Precise Extraction of EEG Rhythmic Activities Using Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition and the Hilbert Transform

Hirokazu Kawaguchi, Tetsuo Kobayashi.
Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering    2013, 1 (2): 153-162.   DOI: 10.2174/2213385202666140207003413

Neural activations can be measured based on modulation of EEG rhythmic activities within specific frequency bands. Previous studies have typically extracted EEG rhythmic activities using Fourier based methods such as short time Fourier and wavelet transforms. But the methods tend to obscure intrawave frequency fluctuations and smear the energy over a much wider frequency range. In this study, we propose a method that combines multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) with the Hilbert transform, rather than a wavelet transform, to extract rhythmic activities more precisely and to visualize them more clearly. The performance of the method was validated using measured EEG data obtained by a wrist movement experiment. The results demonstrated that the proposed method can extract and visualize multi- channel EEG rhythmic activities with higher resolution than methods employing short time Fourier and wavelet transforms.

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Jinglong Wu
Kewei Chen